The advances made possible by next generation sequencing cannot be overstated. It is an exciting area of molecular biology and we are very fortunate to have 2 next generation sequencers, the MiSeq by Illumina and the MinION by Oxford Nanopore, here at Smith College. That said, advances are constantly being made in library enrichment and preparation, and especially in the area of statistics and bioinformatics. Thus, the links and articles below are to serve as a good start on getting information you may find helpful as you venture into this exciting area of experimentation.
Nucleic Acid and Library Prep Protocols
NEB just recently released a magnetic bead kit for mRNA isolation from whole RNA.
For most bacterial RNA applications, you will want to eliminate rRNA. We recommend RiboZero from Illumina for this step.
MagAttract HMW DNA kit by Qiagen Cat#67563 is the recommended DNA extraction for a MinION run. Other variations are fine. Just want longest DNA possible. Regardless of how you extract your DNA, you want to finish with NEB Monarch PCR and DNA cleanup kit for best library build – cat#T1030S. G-tube fragmentation is another optimization that may create a smaller size range and better data and reads,
For Sequencing ends – NEB may come out with one but for right now it is Illumina’s Nextera Mate Pair Preparation Kit
For single cell sequencing- consider Expedeon’s True Prime; https://www.expedeon.com/products/genomics/dna-rna-products/trueprime/trueprime-whole-genome-amplification/
Recommended Kits for Library Prep
For the MiSeq:
New England Biolabs (NEB) carries Illumina compatible DNA and RNA library prep kits and Index kits with pricing comparable to Illumina. In addition, they will give you a substantial educational discount if using for a class. For metagenomics, the library prep is not really kit based but uses primer design to amplify out desired discerning regions of bacteria in a sample. See possible protocols under “16S Metagenomics.”
If you plan to run more than one sample on the MiSeq at one time (a decision made based on the genome/transcriptome size and the coverage you desire), you will need to purchase an index kit the is compatible with your library prep kit. Only certain indexes can be mixed in order for the MiSeq to properly run and resolve your samples. A guide to what indexes one can use together can be found here:
For DNA Oxford Nanopore’s Ligation Sequencing will give you the longest and best quality reads. However, the Rapid DNA Sequencing kit is recommended for field or remote work.
For RNA there is a Direct RNA Sequencing kit and a Direct cDNA sequencing kit.
There are a lot of 3rd party consumables needed for these kits so read the online manuals carefully or see Louie for help. We have run through the Ligation Sequencing so far and have put together an in depth protocol for that one. Will write others as experience is gained.
Once your library is prepped, you will need to test it’s quantity and quality using the Qubit and the Agilent Bioanalyzer, or AATI Fragment Analyzer, each one requiring a kit based on your final product. From those results you will then decide which reagent kit you want to purchase from Illumina for the MiSeq run based on your average library size.
Then for the MiSeq, you need to do some calculations based on cluster density likely and amount of data needed.
No decisions needed for the MinION, just need a flow cell and run reagents.
The CMB is here to help with any questions you may have about making these selections. Just contact the CMB’s ITI, Riccardo Racicot, at firstname.lastname@example.org
Helpful Literature and CMB generated Bioinformatics Workflows
How to view the quality graphs and summary in BaseSpace – SequencingAnalysisViewer_UserGuide
NGS Overview and Practical Approach to Variant Detection in NGS Data – Video. Need to download WebEx Viewer to View
MAUVE – Multiple Genome (or transcriptome) Alignment Tool – free download
For MinION-The above assemblers chop up your reads into smaller pieces negating the advantage of the MinION’s long reads. Thus, these tools are specific for longer reads.
RNA Seq Analysis workflow w:o reference – Article
Metagenomics Research Review – Article
Sirois Final Thesis – Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Horses Before and After Treatment for Parasitic Helminths: Massively Parallel Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene
Links to Bioinfomatics tools
-Got a question? Try asking at SeqAnswers – The Next Generation Community -It’s easy to join. Another good one is BioStars which is more stats and bioinformatics based but lots of good info on experimental design with that end product in mind.
-Here is a quick guide to RNASeq tools (some specific to E. coli) –RNA-Seq data analysis tools overview
-DNAStar Lasergene 12- Available to use on BaseSpace but it has to be on the computer you are using in order to view results. Google DNAStar to see all of it’s capabilities. We currently have a network license, which means it can be put on any Smith computer, but only 4 can be in use at one time, so be sure you quit when you are done. Lasergene 12 is loaded onto the AppleCart computers in the CMB – please be sure to sign out the AppleCart if you need a computer for this purpose. Thanks
PATRIC – has a free suite of NGS analysis tools with storage space and tutorials for the most popular applications including de novo assembly. Set up an account and check it out.
UniPro UGENE – has tuxedo suite set up for RNAseq and more. Easy to use.
Galaxy – Main page – hit “user” button and register and you are good to go.
DAVID – for functional annotation
MeV – Multi-Experiment Viewer – lots of stats and visualization tools – free download
– a quick guide to Making a heatmap of expression with MeV
Rockhopper – A free RNA Seq tool for bacteria studies offered by Wellesley College that assembles, aligns and gene counts your data and produces alignment, coverage, and expression results that can be viewed with IGV, as well as gene lists that can be further explored in databases such as BioCyc.
IGV at the Broad Institute – an Integrated Genomics Viewer free download and support
Qiime – Command line program for metagenomics analysis
Cytoscape – Network data integration, analysis, and visualization in a box – free download
MEGA – Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis – free download
You are going to run into GO terms wherever you go. Here is an article delineating where they come from and what they mean – Gene Ontology annotations what they mean and where they come from (1)
Links to Genome Browsers – these integrate a lot of tools for annotation and pathway placement.
BioCyc – database for everything else
Wormbase – database for nematodes
EcoCyc – database for E.coli K12
RegulonDB – Ecoli Wiki
GreenGenes – a 16S database and workbench
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