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- Acoustic cloaking device hides objects from sound
Engineers have demonstrated the world's first three-dimensional acoustic cloak. The new device reroutes sound waves to create the impression that the cloak and anything beneath it are not there. The phenomenon works in all three dimensions, no matter which direction the sound is coming from or where the observer is located, and holds potential for future applications such as sonar avoidance and architectural acoustics.
- Long-term warming likely to be significant despite recent slowdown
A new study shows Earth's climate likely will continue to warm during this century on track with previous estimates, despite the recent slowdown in the rate of global warming.
- Diets high in animal protein may help prevent functional decline in elderly i...
A diet high in protein, particularly animal protein, may help elderly individuals function at higher levels physically, psychologically, and socially, according to a study. The research suggests that as people age, their ability to absorb or process protein may decline. To compensate for this loss, protein requirements may increase with age.
- Prosocial youth less likely to associate with deviant peers, engage in proble...
Prosocial behaviors, or actions intended to help others, remain an important area of focus for researchers interested in factors that reduce violence and other behavioral problems in youth. However, little is known regarding the connection between prosocial and antisocial behaviors. A new study by a human development expert found that prosocial behaviors can prevent youth from associating with deviant peers, thereby making the youth less likely to exhibit antisocial or problem behaviors, such as aggression and delinquency.
- Scientists 'herd' cells in new approach to tissue engineering
An electrical current can be used to orchestrate the flow of a group of cells, engineers have discovered. This achievement sets the stage for more controlled forms of tissue engineering and for potential applications such as 'smart bandages' that use electrical stimulation to help heal wounds. "This is the first data showing that direct current fields can be used to deliberately guide migration of a sheet of epithelial cells," said the study's lead author.
- Link between missing DNA, birth defects confirmed
The genetic basis for a particular human syndrome that involves cleft palate, epilepsy and respiratory difficulties has been identified by researchers. Better understanding of these genes could help guide treatments for related conditions. "Epilepsy and cleft palate affect tens of thousands of children in the U.S. alone each year," authors said, "and respiratory failure is a particular problem in premature and low birth weight babies. Finding the causative genes for these conditions could have some very clinically important implications."
- Substance naturally found in humans effective in fighting brain damage from s...
A molecular substance that occurs naturally in humans and rats was found to 'substantially reduce' brain damage after an acute stroke and contribute to a better recovery, according to a newly released animal study. The study was the first ever to show that the peptide AcSDKP provides neurological protection when administered one to four hours after the onset of an ischemic stroke.
- Solar policy pathways for U.S. states examined
The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has published a report that aligns solar policy and market success with state demographics. By organizing the 48 contiguous states into four peer groups based on shared non-policy characteristics, the research team was able to contextualize the impact of various solar policies on photovoltaic installations.
- Lack of sleep, stress describe a mother's experience after child's ALL treatment
Many months after their child's diagnosis and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 46 percent of mothers exhibited symptoms of clinical anxiety and 26 percent of mothers showed depressive symptoms. The researchers chose to work with mothers in this maintenance period of relative stability following treatment so as to avoid making further demands on mothers during the acute period of their child's illness. This allowed them to look at the mid- and longer-term effects of a child's diagnosis on a mother's wellbeing.
- Ocean food web is key in the global carbon cycle
Nothing dies of old age in the ocean. Everything gets eaten and all that remains of anything is waste. But that waste is pure gold to an oceanographer. In a study of the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle, oceanographers used those nuggets to their advantage. They incorporated the lifecycle of phytoplankton and zooplankton -- small, often microscopic animals at the bottom of the food chain -- into a novel mechanistic model for assessing the global ocean carbon export.