Slide 11 of 18
Broad-External - required in order to rapidly assess environmental conditions. Complex sport situations such as a quarterback assessing situation on field and making a decision about an appropriate response; basketball point guard coming down the floor on a fast break, etc.
b. Broad-Internal - needed when one analyzes and plans once relevant external information is gathered. Involves taking in current situation and using past experiences to come to a decision. May also involve assessing current levels of muscular tension, feelings about self-confidence, etc.
c. Narrow-Internal - Used when one systematically mentally rehearses their planned performance - golf, weightlifting, gymnastics, track and field events, etc.
d. Narrow-External - Attention required during a response, such as returning a serve (focus on ball), making a pass
Nideffer claims that different tasks make heavier demands than others for certain kinds of attention--contrast coaches job with that of a sprinter.
1. He believes that the Inverted U can be explained by arousal level affecting an individual's willingness and/or ability to shift attention in response to changing task demands.
2. As arousal increases individuals become more dependent upon their preferred attentional style, whether this is the best way to respond or not. For example, the person with a more narrow-external style (focus on response) may not pay enough attention to the broad-external aspects of the task, and may not be able to adapt quickly enough to changing circumstances. -- the basketball player who develops a blindness to what is happening around them.